IPC Design and Assembly Process Implementation for Ball Grid Arrays ( BGAs). IPCC delivers useful and practical information to anyone currently using BGAs or FBGAs. Many issues have become especially important due to the. Lead-free solder has numerous undesirable characteristics, such as a higher melting point and reduced wetting than its leaded predecessor.
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IPCD describes design and assembly implementation for ball grid array BGA and fine-pitch BGA FBGA technology, focusing on inspection, repair and reliability issues associated with design and assembly of printed boards using these packages. Results of the survey will help organize the amendment being discussed for IPC B. The incredible popularity of compact, handheld ipx brings a number of new challenges for designers and manufacturers. When the committee was working on the new C revision, we reviewed the B rev paragraph by paragraph.
IPC-7095C: Design and Assembly Process Implementation for BGAs
The recommendations for process improvement have been retained and are now in the Appendix of the document. There have been concerns raised in the industry, and it was highly recommended in IPC that solder mask-defined lands are undesirable because they impact reliability adversely.
A range of processes have been examined so the standard can give users the latest information on best practices. The other area that has received considerable attention in this revision is BGA rework using hot air and laser methods, as well as ways to ipv damage to adjacent components.
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The critical issue of black pad associated with electroless immersion nickel gold ENIG has been described in detail. IPC is using a tool called SurveyMonkey. The form also is designed such that participants may provide unique comments.
Number of pages Before proceeding with our next revision to 0795we will conduct a survey, and you can help shape the next revision. Another issue that is covered in detail is head on pillow.
The prevalence of handhelds prompted committee members to focus on the problems that come when small products are dropped. Based on the input of this committee, I am glad to report that IPC D has been updated to include void-acceptance criteria. Originally, many thought that these open circuits were in the solder joint or were caused by peeling copper. As manufacturers and OEMs grapple with the challenges faced using BGAs with high lead counts and fine pitches, IPC is providing guidance for dealing with this high density.
Techniques for controlling temperatures and improving solder reflow are also covered.
This problem is accentuated when large BGA packages have slight bowing at the corners and the stress is produced across those joints. Several solutions are recommended, such as putting glue dots or underfilling solder mask defined lands, as well as using excess solder paste at the corners. It is worth noting that voids are not new to BGAs.
IPC-7095C Focuses on Changes in BGA Manufacturing
For example, there are two common approaches for designing lands for BGA – solder mask-defined and non-solder mask, or copper, defined. The target audiences for this document are managers, designers and process engineers who are responsible for design, assembly, inspection and repair processes of printed boards and printed board assemblies. Common causes include contamination, ball or solder paste oxidation, and board warpage. One issue that has received the greatest attention in this revision is the acceptance criterion for voids in BGAs.
If similar inspections are done for other types of components, voids definitely will be seen. Ray Prasad of Prasad Consultancy Group spearheaded the effort. However, leaded surface mount and thru-hole component solder joints usually are visually inspected, not X-rayed. As mentioned, even though we released this document, we met at APEX to discuss its revision; and this is an opportunity for you to get involved.
Further analysis revealed a fault known as cratering, in which the resin under the copper starts to fracture. While looking for other defects during X-ray, invariably some voids are detected.
Based on this data, some people have advocated that voids are good for reliability. The other area that needs to be revisited is design of land patterns for BGAs. Their focus on end product reliability prompted the creation of new information that focuses on mechanical as well as thermal stresses.
The miniaturization of these products has altered the reliability consideration as designers have to consider the shock that comes when products are inevitably dropped. If you participate in the survey, we will provide you with a summary of answers from industry colleagues regarding the use of BGA components.
In this survey, we ask questions related to PCB surface finishes and lead-free soldering because these answers also will be necessary in our next revision.
Voids are seen in thru-hole and other surface mount joints. Another change in the latest iteration of IPC is that voids in solder joints, although still a concern based on their location, have become more of a process indicator. The standard takes another look at X-ray inspection techniques, which have vastly improved and are often used to examine solder connections that are under the package.
This standard describes design and assembly implementation for ball grid array BGA and fine-pitch BGA FBGA technology, focusing on inspection, repair and reliability issues associated with design and assembly of printed boards using these packages.
It also provides describes how to successfully implement robust design and assembly processes for printed board assemblies using BGAs as lpc as ways to troubleshoot some common anomalies which can occur during BGA assembly.
The combination of all the issues drove the development of the C revision to the BGA implementation standard. It is a condition where reflowed 0795 ball and reflowed solder paste do not coalesce forming an incomplete bond that is unreliable.
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Therefore, voids generally are not detected. The base document has undergone an extensive revision during a lengthy development by the committee that included a wide range of representatives from OEMs to fabricators to EMS companies.
Specific solder alloy requirements are addressed for users who iipc attaching dissimilar package materials. The intent is to provide useful and practical information to the industry. There are ipf reasons for this phenomenon, which stems from new laminate formulations to address the higher lead-free temperatures and thinner layers at the surface creating less resin over the glass reinforcement.